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June 10.1190-Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa Red Beard's death

Show:1002 times , datetime:2022-11-13 13:16:06

The May sixth days (Gengxu years), June 10, 1190, the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa Red Beard's death.

Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa Red Beard's death
red beard Frederick I (about 1122 -1190 years, 10 days) Hohenstaufen king of the Roman people (reigned 1152 -1190) and Holy Roman Emperor ( coronation in 1155). He was also Duke of Swabia Germany (known as Frederick III, from 1147) and King of Italy (1154 -1186). His father, Frederick II of Swabia Duke, mother of Bavaria Judith, (genus Welf family). He is the nephew of Emperor Conrad III kinship.
enemy force you, you do not have time to use their power to destroy the shackles ... he took Franks summoned; simply praying there any honors - Frederick I ridiculed the Romans the defenders of justice, law lovers - contemporaries; You have to set an example for others shaken empire through your rehabilitation - Frederick Barbarossa to persuade "lion" Henry participated in the expedition; The evaluation of Frederick Barbarossa
his life in an era of turmoil, in order to compete for the position of the king, the internal Deutsche close fight endlessly year after year, and between the king and the pope, in order to compete for the bishop of Syria and any rights and powers, also bucket hundreds years is difficult to see the outcome. This is an era of martial, and he is typical of this era Shangwu Di Wang, and his life obsessed with the armored cavalry.
his official title is King Frederick I of Hohenstaufen Deutsche nickname for a red beard, because he had a look of bright red beard. But in the eyes of the Italian, the meaning of this nickname is the intruder in Italy, killing innocent people, the Italy people's blood stained his beard, Italian, red beard transliteration Babaduosa. Therefore, he is often referred to as Babaduosa. He is the most admired figures in Hitler, Hitler his planned invasion of the Soviet Union called "Barbarossa" plan.
his father Hohenstaufen family of Swabia Duke Conrad III 1138 by virtue of the use of force and political means was elected German king, his mother is a the Welf family of members. Deutsche princely in Hohenstaufen and Welf family, the most powerful forces in this day and age, Fusion the two descent Frederick became Germany's most blanch hand hot figure. The father died in 1147, his successor Swabian duke, in March 1152, he was elected to the German king.
since the start, every German king Otto the Great to the crown of the Holy Roman Empire must personally enter Italy by Pope coronation. But the religious right and the kingship was very intense competition, epitomized in the Bishop Syria any fight for the right. His predecessors, Henry IV, but had disputes with the Pope excommunicated, he kneeling in Ka Nuosha Castle snow in three days and nights begged the Pope was able to restore the membership in order to restore the membership, but when he pack good old rivers and mountains and then re-enter Rome, deposed the Pope at the old hatreds. Red beard Frederick might have been aware of his disputes with the Pope's inevitable, in order to consolidate the rear, so in 1150 the strength of the Duke of Saxony "lion" Henry let go encroachment on land Slavs east of the Elbe, and to give its bishops the right to appoint, put the Bavarian territory restitution in to him, he must give military support. 1156, in turn similar powers given to the Austrian frontier Ben Hou bar, Fort family, and was promoted as a Duke, Austria embarked on the road of independent development, originator here.
solid rear red beard began to seek crowned Holy Roman Emperor and launched the first expedition to Italy in 1153. Way in the march, he received a letter of Pope especially of gold III of distress was originally taught Shia Nordisk led the people to seize the cities regime, elected members of the Roman Senate and Archons, advocates the church to abandon the territory over the simple life of the apostle. This is a godsend opportunity Frederick accelerate into the suppression of the uprising, the identity of the savior to enter the city of Rome.
new Pope Hadrian IV Curmudgeon understand work, he insisted coronation of Frederick, Frederick Pope horse, by convention, Rotary stirrup, angered Frederick, Results of the celebration venue into a battlefield, one thousand were killed. But no matter how awkward, Frederick has been obtained through the coronation title of "Holy Roman Emperor" (in his previous Kaiser, has been referred to only as the "Roman Emperor", he topped the "sacred" word ). (History. Cn)
Since then, Frederick began working control of the Italian city-states. Italy then communicate with Western Europe and the East Byzantine, Arab media, highly developed commodity economy, on the other hand, Italy politically fragmented, fragmentation of city-states, this situation is undoubtedly easy to stimulate the ambitions of the invaders. 1154, Frederick held Longkaliya meeting, reiterated the Holy Roman Emperor sovereignty over Italy, including the powers of the appointed officials, levying taxes. But Frederick year from Italy to plunder the great wealth (much more than in the Deutsche income), caused the dissatisfaction of the northern Italian city, Milan, led by the anti-Kaiser Cite organized.
, in our view, the the red beard Italian War undoubtedly belongs to an act of aggression, but it was the nation-states of Germany and Italy has not yet formed, the boundaries of the "Holy Roman Empire" outstanding, Frederick do not think he was the aggressor, contrary to think of themselves as rebel forces under the repressive rule.
Thus, red beard Frederick in 1158 and 1160, twice to enter Italy, were referred to as his second, third Italian campaign, win, forcing the North Italian city-states alliance yield, but The latter is extraordinarily difficult, the new pope, Alexander III, he added to the hostile camp, declared him anathema (excommunication). After two years of siege scored Milan. Red beard mercilessly destroy the city of Milan, and announced that Alexander III as antipope. (Lssdjt.com) the atrocities of
Frederick of Italy caused by a growing number of opponents. In 1167, the Italian city-states (including Venice, Verona) "Lombard alliance", jointly supported Milan against Frederick, and obtained the support of the Pope and the Byzantine Empire. The same year, Frederick launching the fourth Italian campaign, the beginning of the proceeding smoothly, capture of Rome, the Pope fled in panic in Rome, Frederick the second coronation as emperor. The northern Italian city citizens to rise up against, coupled with the plague epidemic, Frederick Army died over two thousand knights, Frederick Shenxianzhongwei forced to embarrassed to escape disguised as a peasant. Frederick failed miserably the first time in Italy.
Afterward the Frederick fifth in 1174 invaded Italy, North Italian city-states embattled join the Lombardy alliance "of the city increased to 22 (between the Italian city-states, and between them and the Pope so united or the first time, this also shows the impact of Frederick), try to peace talks to resolve the outset, but Lombard Democrats request the pope to participate in the peace talks was Frederick opposition. In 1176, the two sides battle near Milan Lin Yanuo This is one of the famous battles in medieval. Frederick army crushing blow, I was seriously injured and had to surrender.
1177, Frederick was forced Pope Alexander III signed Venice and about the restitution of Church property, and also promised not to interfere in the internal affairs of the Papal States, kneeling at the foot of Alexander III to kiss his feet. Lombardy alliance signed in 1183 Constance and about Frederick repaid all the plundering of land, to give up the right to appoint its own officials in various cities, all resolutions repeal Longkaliya meeting ... Frederick retain the highest any formal powers and provisions of the Lombard League in the imperial touring, reception and with be retained little face. The Italian war
Frederick launch ended in failure, but his 1186 Sixth south Italy has achieved another form of victory. This time, he went to Milan Sicilies heiress Constance wedding for his son (later Henry VI), and newly appointed the Pope Wu Erbang III newlyweds coronation for the king and queen of Italy, and in fact he The successor of control foreshadowed in Italy.
red beard Frederick will mainly focus on Italy, so the princes in Germany to obtain a good development opportunities, as mentioned earlier, he has given the "Lion" Henry Bangjun many privileges, his reign period is Germany's transition from absolute monarchy to a feudal system is a critical period. But then the "lion" Henry did not fulfill the obligations with the Frederick's invasion of Italy, Frederick confiscated territory, and forced into exile in the United Kingdom. In this regard, Frederick mainly act according to their own interests, and there is no consistent long-term strategy.
Frederick is said to be affable, physique and intellect are extraordinary. His tireless war against life made him a hero in the eyes of the German militarists, but in the eyes of the Italian people, he obviously is a devil. Attack Ke Lima in 1159, went so far as to 50 Mingkelima into children as a precursor to resist Shi Shi, which greatly damaged the image of his hero. However, in 1189, when the Muslim hero Saladin captured Jerusalem in Christian hands, he called on European countries to the Crusades, and personally led his army expedition 67 years old the first time he has become a hero in the eyes of full-Europeans . But in his journey to tide over a creek called Sale Fu drowned. Generation Ares to resort to such a dramatic way to end his life, that many Germans are reluctant to believe this fact, the legend that he was just somewhere to rest, but also to return to his motherland.
red beard Frederick Barbarossa later than his British Lionheart Richard is quite similar are lifetime conquests, quite a few other achievements. Frederick reign longer and his campaign Germany, Italy's political situation has undergone significant changes, obviously his ranking in the chart above Lionheart. (Lssdjt.cn)
Review: After a person's point of view, Frederick I, a second attack on the Italian can not build lasting reign, but the result of Germany's ruling forces princes are dispersed was foreshadowed later conflict, which is obviously very uneconomical. In fact, this is the German king at the same time enjoy the glory of the Holy Roman Emperor, the obligations for the fictional empire. Ideal empire harm to the interests of political reality, this is a typical example.

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